Wastewater treatment and biomass growth of eight plants for shallow bed wetland roofs
Wetland roof (WR) could bring many advantages for tropical cities such as thermal benefits, flood control, green coverage and domestic wastewater treatment. This study investigates wastewater treatment and biomass growth of eight local plants in shallow bed WRs. Results showed that removal rates of WRs were 21–28 kg COD ha−1 day−1, 9–13 kg TN ha−1 day−1 and 0.5–0.9 kg TP ha−1 day−1, respectively. The plants generated more biomass at lower hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Dry biomass growth was 0.4–28.1 g day−1 for average HLR of 247–403 m3 ha−1 day−1. Green leaf area of the plants was ranging as high as 67–99 m2 leaves per m2 of WR. In general, the descent order of Kyllinga brevifoliaRottb (WR8), Cyperus javanicus Houtt (WR5) and Imperata cylindrical (WR4) was suggested as effective vegetations in WR conditions in terms of wastewater treatment, dry biomass growth and green coverage ratio.